"Language, as well as the faculty of speech, was the immediate gift of God." ~ Noah Webster



Thursday, November 29, 2012

Make A Difference! Get M.A.D! ;-)

HSLDA (Home School Legal Defense Association) has been working tirelessly to defeat the ratification of the United Nations CRPD Treaty (Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities). This treaty is frightening; the proponents are well organized and relentless. Also joining forces in this fight with HSLDA, is Senator Rick Santorum and his organization Patriot Voices , as well as Parental Rights .

These groups are helping inform citizens so we can easily join in this important battle. Calls to our Senators are imperative at this time. A vote is scheduled for Tuesday, December 4th.

There are so many troubling issues taking place in our nation at this time. Those of us that home school here in Idaho, have seen without a doubt that our phone calls DO work. We have lived and understood the need to protect that freedom.

The truth of the matter is, we have many other freedoms that are at stake now, too. If we could encourage others to come on board and make these strategic phone calls when needed on some of these important issues, I am convinced we would see a change.

During my discussions with friends and acquaintances I have had people ask me, "But what can I do?"

Below are my suggestions:
  • Pray!
  • Dispose of any defeatist attitude!
  • Write letters to the editor of your local paper.
  • Blog
  • Create an email mailing list to help keep friends and family informed! Tell them to spread the word.
  • Join groups such as HSLDA, Patriot Voices , NRA , Parental Rights , American Center for Law and Justice  ~ these groups will add you to their mailing lists and inform you when it is time to make a phone call (or email) to our Representatives, or Senators. These groups basically are doing the work for us and will keep us informed of bills and actions that may need our attention. They make it SO easy for us, providing phone numbers, email addresses, and informing us of time constraints!
  • Join a social media group such as Facebook. There is absolutely no quicker way to get information on all of the issues that are taking place within our nation. If you don't like the idea of the "friends", simply "like" the groups from whom you wish to receive information.
  • Memorize this number! 202-224-2131 ~ This is the phone number to the Capitol, and you can reach your Senators at this number. It will also allow those at the top to understand the degree of outcry or concern on any particular issue.With the way the past election went our conservative members of Congress NEED to know they have our support. Those on the fence of certain issues NEED to be persuaded!
If we want America, to continue to be the greatest nation on this earth, we need to act!

But back to the issue of the UN CRPD; a simple phone call to the phone number above should be made before Tuesday. Simply ask to leave a message for your Senators (In Idaho, Crapo and Risch). Tell them that you oppose the ratification of the UN CRPD. You don't have to give a reason; but if you choose to, Number 1 in the list below, is sufficient. The list below comes from the HSLDA Facebook page - five VERY GOOD reasons why we should oppose CRPD.

~~~~~~~~~~~

From the desk of Michael Farris ~ HSLDA
I have been asked to give five quick reasons to oppose the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
 
1. As a matter of American self-government, we should never make treaties that put American domestic issues under UN supervision.
 
2. This treaty will give the government wide discretion to override parental decisions concerning children with special needs or handicapping conditions. Today the government can decide what is best for a child only after proving abuse, neglect, or abandonment. Under this treaty the government need not prove anything—it just has the raw power to override parental decisions concerning special needs kids.
...
3. This treaty is the first treaty that puts Economic, Social, and Cultural rights—which are binding government entitlements—into the highest law of the land. This is socialism by treaty—period.
 
4. The US will spend millions of dollars on our required periodic reports to the UN. They check on us to monitor our compliance. We should spend that money here in the US on meeting the needs of our own citizens.
 
5. US ratification of this treaty will have no legal impact in any other country. It will not affect Americans who travel abroad. It will not help the disabled in other nations. The Administration’s claims on these points cannot be proven. Ask anyone who claims otherwise to read you the sections on travel and “extra-territorial” application. They can’t do it.
 
Call your Senators. Ask them to VOTE NO on the UN CRPD. 202.224.3121

Tuesday, November 27, 2012

Ahhh Childhood - Spending Treasure

I walked out to get the morning paper after feeding the horses. It had been raining relentlessly the last few days, and the mud had not only built up around the barn, but puddles of water also lay intermittently throughout the drive way. I had my muck boots on, and a walk through the water in the driveway to clean off my boots was just a little too tempting.

As I splashed through the water, I was reminded of my friend from work who had just the day before been lamenting the fact that her five year old grandson, simply couldn’t stay out of the mud puddles when he was outside playing. I smiled at the thought; and for a moment I had a five year old heart myself as I moved my boots up and down the puddle attempting to clean off the mud. It felt good to be here, because I was also remembering moments of my childhood when I also couldn’t seem to stay out of the mud puddles.

I remember a time in my life when I was probably about eight or nine; I wanted a raincoat in the worst way. I had been watching Secret Agent Man or some equivalent on the television and probably reading too many mystery books. I connected a raincoat with being a private eye, or detective.  I wanted the raincoat, not so much to play in the rain, as I did to play detective.

Anyway, it wasn’t long and a package came in the mail from my grandma. It wasn’t Christmas or anyone’s birthday; it was just a thoughtful gift from my maternal grandpa and grandma.  When the package was opened, I was delighted! What was inside? Raincoats!  There was one for each of my siblings and me, if I remember correctly.  Mine was a sky blue color, it was beautiful and it fit perfectly.  

I still remember the first rainy day that I was able to go out and play in my new raincoat. I don’t remember a thing about my imaginative play as detective, but I don’t think I will ever forget the delightful, wonderful feel of my brand new slicker! With the warm spring rain pouring down on me,  I splashed in the puddles while the wind blew creating just the right atmosphere I had been awaiting.

Ahhh! Childhood!

So splashing in puddles is not the only thing I have been doing of late. Picking up on that mystery theme, I also recently decided I would reread some of my old childhood mystery novels - Trixie Belden to be exact. I guess my previous posts put me in that mood; as well as a desire to remove myself briefly from reality. I found myself wanting to get lost in that series, or at least something that wouldn't require much thought. What’s going on with this second childhood phase, I seem to be experiencing!

To top things off, a few days ago, I spent an afternoon mindlessly coloring in an old coloring book that I came across while cleaning or something.  Ok, whatever!  I didn’t just randomly come across it, I sought it out. I knew just where it was as well as a bag of fairly new crayons I had been keeping for just such an occasion.  I had the urge to color…I wanted to vegetate, I wanted to relax. Sometimes life just requires it, doesn’t it?

I can’t think of anything much more mindless, than coloring, can you?

Hmmm, Ok well maybe splashing in puddles would fit that category best.
 
Maybe tomorrow, I will write about grown up things...well, or maybe not just yet.

Thursday, November 22, 2012

A Heart of Thanksgiving


Below is a note from Michael Farris that he had posted this morning on Facebook. Mr. Farris’s beginning comments are thought-provoking and appreciated. President George Washington’s Proclamation (I almost prefer to call him General George Washington, here.) is absolutely beautiful.

Today, (Thanksgiving, specifically; but generally, I also mean these difficult days we are living.) Washington's words are especially poignant. After a Presidential election that seemed to reveal an electorate that no longer understands freedom and the American Dream, we can garner much wisdom from our first President as we contemplate deeper his words.

This is an extremely important proclamation still relevant, if not even more so, for today. The knowledge of to Whom we should offer our thanks; the understanding of the need for repentance; the conviction to preserve freedom; and the desire to be a light and friend to all nations is succinctly covered in Washington’s words. So much is expressed if one will only stop to contemplate the heart behind the messenger. General Washington’s message overwhelms me as I read it again and again. This is not only America’s beginnings, this is America’s heart.

Especially important for me – and not necessarily the most important part of his message – is a quote I wish to emphasize:
“…to enable us all, whether in public or private stations, to perform our several and relative duties properly and punctually, to render our national government a blessing to all the people, by constantly being a Government of wise, just, and constitutional laws, discreetly and faithfully executed and obeyed, to protect and guide all Sovereigns and Nations (especially such as have shown kindness unto us) and to bless them with good government, peace, and concord.”*
That is what America was conceived and born to do. America has always been a nation to understand the need to help others, to lead in freedom without concern for power, and to represent Righteousness, our Savior Jesus Christ to a watching world. That is the true American Dream. This is what I am thankful for today, and my prayer is for generations that will continue, and even more, once again fully understand. This dream simply can’t continue without the desire “to be devoted by the People of these States to the service of that great and glorious Being, who is the beneficent Author of all the good that was, that is, or that will be.”

Happy Thanksgiving!  ~ Jan

 
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 
A Thanksgiving Note from Michael Farris, HSLDA Chairman.

I am thankful today for George Washington. He did more to make this nation free than any other single individual. Yes, he was a great general. Yes, he was our first president. Yes, he presided over the Constitutional Convention. But, Washington's greatest contribution to American freedom was walking away from power--twice.

First, he walked away from power after winning the War for Independence. George III said that if Washington went back to farming as he planned to do after winning the war, he would be the greatest man that ever lived. No general ever walked away from power in such a situation.

Second, he walked away from power after two terms as President.

Finally, George Washington knew that God was the author of freedom--and he said so publicly--not just once but many times. Here is our nation's first Thanksgiving Proclamation, from George Washington.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


Proclamation of National Thanksgiving
George Washington

City of New York, October 3, 1789

Whereas it is the duty of all Nations to acknowledge the providence of Almighty God, to obey his will, to be grateful for his benefits, and humbly to implore his protection and favor, and whereas both Houses of Congress have by their joint Committee requested me "to recommend to the People of the United States a day of public thanksgiving and prayer to be observed by acknowledging with grateful hearts the many signal favors of Almighty God especially by affording them an opportunity peaceably to establish a form of government for their safety and happiness."

Now therefore I do recommend and assign Thursday the 26th day of November next to be devoted by the People of these States to the service of that great and glorious Being, who is the beneficent Author of all the good that was, that is, or that will be. That we may then all unite in rendering unto him our sincere and humble thanks, for his kind care and protection of the People of this Country previous to their becoming a Nation, for the signal and manifold mercies, and the favorable interpositions of his providence, which we experienced in the course and conclusion of the late war, for the great degree of tranquility, union, and plenty, which we have since enjoyed, for the peaceable and rational manner, in which we have been enabled to establish constitutions of government for our safety and happiness, and particularly the national One now lately instituted, for the civil and religious liberty with which we are blessed; and the means we have of acquiring and diffusing useful knowledge; and in general for all the great and various favors which he hath been pleased to confer upon us.

And also that we may then unite in most humbly offering our prayers and supplications to the great Lord and Ruler of Nations and beseech him to pardon our national and other transgressions, to enable us all, whether in public or private stations, to perform our several and relative duties properly and punctually, to render our national government a blessing to all the people, by constantly being a Government of wise, just, and constitutional laws, discreetly and faithfully executed and obeyed, to protect and guide all Sovereigns and Nations (especially such as have shown kindness unto us) and to bless them with good government, peace, and concord. To promote the knowledge and practice of true religion and virtue, and the encrease of science among them and Us, and generally to grant unto all Mankind such a degree of temporal prosperity as he alone knows to be best.

Given under my hand at the City of New York the third day of October in the year of our Lord 1789.

* Emphasis in bold lettering is mine.


 

Sunday, November 11, 2012

Today And Every Day

Honoring our Veterans today...and everyday.




And some of my own favorite veterans:

 
Army 1st Cav ~ Viet Nam
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


The Moving Wall ~ Viet Nam
A Treasured Name Is Found


World War II Memroial
World War II Memorial

Army Air Corp ~ World War II

 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 
 
POP
World War I
 
Today is the first time our nation has celebrated Veteran's Day without a World War I veteran.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 

 

Sunday, November 4, 2012

Young at Heart

I stopped to read a blog this morning before church, and I got quite a kick out of it. Tasha at Day by Day had been tagged with 50 Questions. I know from reading her blog she enjoys these tags.  I don’t usually do them, but I have been verrrrry burdened with politics of late, and decided I could use the diversion.

There have been so many things going on in this world, I have had a hard time even thinking about anything else to write about on my blog. I know writing about all that negativity is a no-no in the blogging world. But sometimes I do it anyway; simply because the affairs of this world, is something that is extremely important to me.  I figure if one doesn’t like it, one doesn’t have to read it. And one never knows, some may be like me and find various opinions interesting. Quite honestly, I believe some of it needs to be said.  I am a firm believer in dialogue on the issues of today. No one has to agree, but we all are required to think. And I believe we all should form an opinion one way or another.

Regardless, I decided it was time to lighten up for a bit…so, I decided, though this tag is obviously geared toward the younger generation, I would tackle these 50 Questions along with my friend, Tasha.

 
1. Are you young at heart, or an old soul?
I am an old soul who is young at heart.

2. What Christmas present do you remember the most?
Don’t remember… I am an old soul…


3. Name one physical feature that you like about yourself, and one you don't like.
My gray hair – like; my aged body – dislike….go figure.

4. What holiday do you most look forward to?
This year: voting day…  Oh, that’s not a holiday?  Well then, hopefully Inauguration Day! Otherwise, Christmas, Resurrection Day, Thanksgiving, and Independence Day…I love holidays!

5. How is the relationship between you and your parents?
It’s great, now that we are all the same age….actually it was good when I was a kid, too.

6. You've got the TV on, but you're not really watching. What channel is the TV on?
I don’t have it on, but it is almost always on 205 – FOX.

7. If you could pick anywhere to live the rest of your life, where would it be?
Probably right here. I will never leave Idaho; but someday I may become a “snow-bird”.

8. Have you ever spent a night in the hospital?
Birth and giving birth


9. Do you enjoy being with only one or two friends, or with a large group of people?
I usually prefer one-on-one conversation…but I do enjoy it when a couple of my friends and I get together, and I love my large family gatherings.


10. Do you like the type of music your parents listen to? Do your parents like the type of music you listen to?
Pretty much…I love the old country they listen too as well as Gospel…but they probably are not too crazy about the new country that I also listen to.


11. If you could only eat one thing for the rest of your life, what would it be?
Believe it or not, I think about this question all the time…probably Special K Cereal with Strawberries…but most likely, I would find a way to cheat…


12. Do you believe in a god?
No, I do not believe in “a god”. I believe only in the One, True Living God who loved the world so much He sent His Son to die a painful death that He didn’t deserve, but rather, that I deserved.

13. What's you're favorite hash-tag to track?
No clue about this, but I guess it has to do with Twitter which I don’t do, and I have no brain cells (or desire) left, to learn anything about it.

14. When you were young, what would you dream you would be when you grew up?

I was going to be a vet, a detective, a counselor, and a mom… two out of four ain’t bad!  ;-)

15. Do you want to have more friends than you have right now?
I wish I had time…but even if I did, I would rather use the time to connect with old ones.

16. Have you ever met someone through the Internet, then met them in real life?
Nope.

17. Tell me about the last book you read.
The last book I read was Obama’s America by Dinesh D’Souza; and now I am reading the Roots of Obama’s Rage, by the same author….both extremely interesting, but I am ready to lighten it up on my next read…However, most likely I will finish up Jefferson Lies by David Barton which I stopped reading to begin Obama’s America. (And of course I am assuming we aren’t speaking about the Bible here, which would be daily.)


18. Predict what your life will look like a year from now.
No predictions…


19. Early bird or night owl?
I am an early bird; to bed early and up early…HOWEVER, I absolutely hate having to rush out of the house after rising…I like to make coffee, read my Bible, catch up on the news on TV and/or internet…and lounge around for awhile before having to do anything and before anyone else wakes up…makes for a much better day.
J

20. Where do you live? Be as general or specific as you want.
The beautiful state of my birth and of my youth…

21. What was the longest car ride you've ever taken?
Well, that’s an easy one…I long-hauled with my husband from Washington State to North Carolina, and then we had a day or two lay-over in North Carolina.  In our down time, we bought a car because of a killer deal, and I drove it from North Carolina, to California…LA area…then, back up to Idaho.

22. What is your ethnic heritage?
Mostly Norwegian, as my Grandpa was full blooded Norwegian…but I also have Danish, Irish, German, I think…and my dad (and my son) proudly claim our Cherokee… That all makes me a very proud American.

23. Do you want to live until you're 100?
Not the way I feel now…

24. Do you practice what you preach?
Pretty much, I think…I hope so. My family might say I preach more.

25. Have you ever laughed uncontrollably when it was socially inappropriate?
Yes, probably more than I remember; but one time I remember for sure was HORRIBLE.  It was in 8th grade and I was supposed to be giving a speech, but I couldn’t stop laughing…I will never forget the look of disgust and embarrassment on the face of the boy I had a crush…finally the teacher just told me to sit down…. Yikes….One of those things you can laugh at now, ONLY if you are in a group telling the story to try to make OTHERS laugh!  ;-)

26. Do you often skip breakfast?
No, I always eat breakfast, believing it to be the most important meal of the day…Because to me it is…I get sick if I don’t.


27. Would you want to know the exact date and time you were going to die?
I’m planning on being raptured!  ;-)

28. Describe your neighborhood.
God’s gift to me…


29. Name a TV series you didn't enjoy until after it ended.
There are none…the ones I watch, I have already enjoyed the first time around.
J

30. Have you ever bought a product from an infomercial?
No, not that I remember…though, sometimes I think about it.

31. What is one thing you could never forgive?
I don’t think there is much of anything I haven’t already had to forgive…and sometimes more than once. It feels like I have already forgiven it all…including manslaughter…that’s what happens when you live long enough. I have also lived long enough to understand that forgiveness doesn’t mean you have to keep hanging with those you have had to forgive….sometimes I still do spend time with people that have offended me, but I have also learned sometimes it is better if one doesn’t. Love them from a distance and move on.

32. What part of the past year sticks out in your mind?
Oh my…mow, mow, mow, mow, mow!


33. What is your favorite sport?
As spectator – rodeo, ice skating, and football. As participant, I have none that I do; nor any that I would like to do…especially rodeo, ice skating or football!

34. What has been troubling you lately?
I have to admit there are some things…one thing would be our current administration…but I tend to go on enough about that already.  The other would be the disunity in “the church” and the fact that many don’t seem to know what they believe any more. There seems to be a sort disconnect among believers and a lack of understanding about key tenants of Christianity.  I am also troubled about the pride we see in some Christians. The “one upping” we often see taking place and the pride in “what we know” or “what we do”. As my pastor said today…”What do we have to be proud of?”  Except a Savior that saved us from the pit of hell.


35. Who was your first crush?
My first crush is an easy one…it was Clint Eastwood, as Rowdy Yates on Rawhide. I will never forget when I was 5 years old, waiting for him to show up on the intro to that show so I could give that black and white screen a big ole kiss.  I did, too!


36. Where is your favorite place to go out and eat?
Oh man, there are many…In Spokane, it is definitely Frank’s Diner; Skyway CafĂ©; and Anthony’s…In CDA we like Mackenzie River Pizza and Cedar’s…sometimes Dockside. In Sandpoint, we love Ivanho’s; and the Best Western on the water, whose name now escapes me… Oh! And of course I love Hudson’s in CDA and Rob’s Fish in Post Falls…but only as grab and go.

37. Give me an unpopular opinion you have.
Almost every opinion I have is unpopular…

38. Describe a person that inspires you.
I am inspired by President George W. Bush for the respect he showed the office of the Presidency, for his sense of humor amidst attacks from his political enemies, for his loyalty and dedication to the troops; and for his ability to not say a word after being constantly attacked by this current administration; I am inspired by his ability to understand that history will one day be fair to him…I believe we are already seeing it.

I am also inspired by the Reverend Billy Graham for his unwavering faithfulness to our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, for his dedication to fulfill what the Lord has called him to do, and for understanding and not messing up when there have been so many lives that have been watching his life…his holy example is rare…and no, I’m not saying he’s perfect. But he is a wonderful example of Christian obedience.

39. If you could earn minimum wage doing what you love, would you?
Absolutely! I would probably do it for free!

40. Describe the last time you were very angry at someone.
I get angry at pride and manipulation. I also get angry in traffic…almost daily.


41. Where would you prefer to live? A city? The suburbs? The countryside? The mountains?

The country with the woods or mountains behind me, and a vast prairie in front of me; so I can watch the sunsets, and sunrises, the star filled night sky, see the grass blowing softly in the wind and hear the meadowlarks sing.

42. Where is "home" for you?
See above…and a little town north.

43. Where do you and your friends go to hang out?
I don’t hang out.

44. Have you ever been bullied? Have you ever bullied anyone else?
No…and no.

45. Is it possible for guys and girls to be just friends?
Sometimes…

46. What are the 6 songs you listen to the most?
Since I work somewhere where country music is always on, the list is endless….usually playing the top singles that are popular at the time…but it would be easier for me to list my top favorite artists which would be: Alan Jackson, Tim McGraw, Toby Keith, Alan Jackson, Tim McGraw and Toby Keith…yeah, yeah, yeah…I know, sometimes they can be a little more “off color” than I would like them to be, but when they nail it, they really nail it…and many of their lyrics are very moving and as American as apple pie. Each of them has moved me to tears with their talent in one way or another.

47. If you could meet anyone on earth, who would it be?

Probably President G. W. Bush and Billy Graham. I don’t think I would be nervous around either of these two gentlemen. I would have also liked to meet Andrew Breitbart …just to tell him thank you for the fire…we really need more of it. I cried when he died...and no, I didn't agree with everything he said or did. But he was not a coward, and had my utmost respect in that regard.

48. What is your favorite blog currently?
No favorites.

49. What's the farthest you've ever been from home?
Quebec City and Montreal, Quebec or would it be Hawaii? I have no desire to check statistics on that right now.


50. What's the one thing you're afraid of?
Spiders – BIG TIME! And in my old age, we can add heights to that list.

.....

So there you go…I don’t know if I did this correctly. I don’t ever do tags…they are as unfamiliar as tweets and hash/tags.  So forgive me if I did it incorrectly.  Karla! You’re IT…now, don’t disappoint me! And anyone else who is feeling young at heart, today...Have fun!




Saturday, November 3, 2012

A Love That Passes Knowledge

"The whole of our Lord’s conduct towards His disciples on earth deserves close consideration; it throws a beautiful light on the compassion and longsuffering that this is in Him. No master surely ever had scholars so slow to learn their lessons as Jesus had in the Apostles. No scholars surely ever had so patient and forbearing a teacher as the Apostles had in Christ.  Gather up all the evidence on this subject that lies scattered through the Gospels, and see the truth of what I say.

At no time of our Lord’s ministry did the disciples seem to comprehend fully the object of His coming into the world.  The humiliation, the atonement, the crucifixion were hidden things to them. The plainest words and clearest warnings from their Master of what was going to befall Him seemed to have had no effect on their minds.  They understood not.  They perceived not.  It was hid from their eyes.  Once Peter even tried to dissuade our Lord from suffering.  “Be it far from thee, Lord,” he said, “this shall not be unto thee” (Matt. 16:22; Luke 18:34; 9:45).

Frequently you will see things in their spirit and demeanor that are not at all to be commended.  One day we are told they disputed among themselves who should be greatest (Mark 9:34). Another day they considered not His miracles and their hearts were hardened (Mark 6:52). Once, two of them wished to call down fire from heaven upon a village, because it did not receive them (Luke 9:54).  In the garden of Gethsemane the three best of them slept when they should have watched and prayed.  In the hour of His betrayal they all forsook Him and fled, and worst of all, Peter, the most forward of the twelve, denied his Master three times with an oath.

Even after the resurrection, you see the same unbelief and hardness of heart cling to them; though they saw their Lord with their eyes, and touched Him with their hands, even then some doubted.  So weak were they in faith!  So slow of heart were they “to believe all that the prophets had spoken” (Luke 24:25). So backward were they in understanding the meaning of our Lord’s words and actions, and life and death.

But what do you see in our Lord’s behavior towards these disciples all through His ministry?  You see nothing but unchanging piety, compassion, kindness, gentleness, patience, long-suffering, and love. He does not cast them off for their stupidity. He does not reject them for their unbelief.  He does not dismiss them forever for cowardice. He teaches them as they are able to bear.  He leads them on step by step, as a nurse does an infant when it first begins to walk. He sends them kind messages as soon as He is risen from the dead.  “Go,” He said to the woman. “Go tell my brethren that they go into Galilee, and there they shall see me” (Matt 28:10).  He gathers them round Himself once more.  He restores Peter to his place, and bids him “feed my sheep” (John 21:17). He condescends to sojourn with them forty days before He finally ascends. He commissions them to go forth as His messengers, and preach the Gospel to the Gentiles. He blesses them in parting, and encourages them with that gracious promise, “I am with you always, even unto the end of the world” (Matt.28:20). Truly this was a love that passes knowledge. This is not the manner of man."


~J.C. Ryle from Holiness: Its Nature, Hindrances, Difficulties, and Roots